So, here we would like to provide a short summary of the story of Göbekli Tepe’s chronology.
The period Göbekli Tepe was built in is addressed as the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) after one of its main cultural traits, the absence of pottery vessels (there are clay figurines later in the PPN, however).
Projectile points from Göbekli Tepe include PPN A types like el-Khiam, Helwan and Aswad points; regarding the PPNB, Byblos and Nemrik points are very frequent, Nevalı Çori points are rare.
A closer examination of the points reveals, however, that characteristic forms of the latest PPN B are missing.
Göbekli Tepe was abandoned after the middle PPN B, i.e. That is the time when agriculture finally is fully established; the demise of a hunter-gatherer site would thus fit in this general picture.
Although the observed archaeological stratigraphy is confirmed by the relative sequence of the data, absolute ages are clearly too young, with Layer III being pushed into the 9th millennium, and Layer II producing ages from the 8th or even 7th millennia cal BC.
Therefore, the data fail to provide absolute chronological points of reference for architecture and strata.
At Göbekli Tepe, we can differentiate two layers which are completely different in the type of architecture appearing in them.
Layer III, the lower and thus older layer, has the famous circular enclosures with the T-shaped pillars.
Given these inherent difficulties, in a first approach the attempt was made to date the architecture directly using pedogenic carbonates.
These begin to form on limestone surfaces as soon as they are buried with sediment.
Layer II is characterized by smaller buildings with rectangular groundplans.
They sometimes also have pillars that are much smaller than the older ones however.
The general chronological division for the Early Neolithic was developed in the Southern Levant, by Kathleen Kenyon on the basis of the stratigraphy of Jericho.