Developing and validating a tool to measure parenting self efficacy

Major roles of the supervisor are protection of the public, including the supervisees’ clients, and gatekeeping for the professions, ensuring that only suitable individuals enter the respective professions.

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There may also be fears or anger; reticence to enter therapy; anxiety about entry, process, and the therapist; client, therapist, and supervisor expectations; paperwork that may seem to be a barrier; cultural or diversity considerations that may make therapy a dystonic experience; lack of familiarity with the system; fears that secrets may be revealed; and hopes for the future, among other factors.

In the supervisee’s domain, there are his current developmental state; uncertainty of role; feelings of inadequacy; a desire to apply what one has learned in graduate school; optimism; a sense of dominance and knowing the client better than anyone else; eagerness to help the client; eagerness to please the supervisor; fear of failure; theories and ideas of conceptualization, dynamics, and interventions; cultural diversity identification; personal factors including worldview, perspective, curiosity, and identification with the client and/or supervisor; and a desire to individuate and be a competent independent practitioner.

Net is approved by the American Psychological Association (APA) to sponsor continuing education for psychologists. Net maintains responsibility for this program and its content. Net, provider #1107, is approved as a provider for social work continuing education by the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB) org, through the Approved Continuing Education (ACE) program. Programs that do not qualify for NBCC credit are clearly identified. Net is solely responsible for all aspects of the programs. Net is approved by the Ohio Counselor, Social Worker, & Marriage and Family Therapist Board (OH-CSWMFT) to offer continuing education for counselors, social workers, and MFTs. The materials in this course are based on the most current information and research available to the author at the time of writing.

Course format (distance learning - online activity). Net has been approved by the National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC) as an Approved Continuing Education Provider (ACEP), ACEP #6323.

It was a skill passed from generation to generation of clinicians.

When the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB) convened their first task force on supervision, they expressed surprise that – given the critical role of supervision in protection of the public and in the training of psychologists – that there were no established requirements for graduate level training in supervision (ASPPB, 2003).

We now realize the need for a formal process as the fields have evolved and supervision has become a core competency in mental health.

Supervision requires the supervisor to assess and evaluate levels of supervisee readiness, competence, and affect, reflect upon these in the supervisor oneself, and to weave a tapestry of thought and feeling which translates into effective clinical intervention.

While the role of supervisor is weighty, it is also replete with potential for growth, development, inquiry, creativity, and excitement.

Until the last decade, remarkably little attention was devoted to the practice of supervision.

The self-assessment that is the foundation of supervision planning should be conducted using a competencies measure, described later in this course.


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