It is a feasible that these were regarded as the main Parsi settlements at the time (Dhabhar, pp. A is the terrible hardships suffered by Iranian Zoroastrians, who interpreted their suffering as signs of the final assault of evil before a savior would come and the renovation commence.In contrast, the Parsis were beginning to occupy important social positions such as (village leaders and tax officers).the plain was distressed by the weight of the elephants … The two leaders were as dragons, struggling with each other with the fury of tigers.
We do not have a precise date when these agreements were reached.
The oldest manuscript detailing them is dated 1543 (Sanjana, pp. The Panthaks were: (1) Sanjān between the rivers Pardi to Dahanu (nowadays based in Udwada); (2) Navsari between the rivers Pardi to Variav and the River Tapti; (3) Godavra, from Variav to River Narmada near Broach; (4) Pahruc from Ankleshwar to Cambay; and (5) Cambay.
Oral tradition relates that Jadi Rana felt apprehensive about granting sanctuary to people of such warrior-like appearance, but the priests convinced the king that they would be 'like sugar in a full cup of milk, adding sweetness but not causing it to overflow’ (a variant relates the placing of a gold ring in the cup of milk; see Axelrod). They emphasized the points where their religion was consistent with Hindu tradition, but some details do not reflect Hindu practice; for example, there was no reason why weddings should be held at night.
Tradition states that the Parsi affirmations of their religion were delivered in sixteen statements (Skt. It has, therefore, been plausibly argued (Eduljee, 1995, pp.
Iranians have been involved in trade with India from Achaemenid times, but the creation of a Parsi settlement in India was the outcome of the migration of Zoroastrian refugees from their original homeland in medieval Islamic Persia. 1), 775 (Seervai and Patel), 780s (; all quotations from this source are taken from Eduljee’s translation), 785 (Modi, 1905, pp. He asked for an account of their religion and laid down four pre-conditions before agreeing to grant them sanctuary: They should use only the local language, the women should adopt the local dress, they must put down their weapons and vow never to use them and, finally, their marriage ceremonies should be conducted only in the evening; the dastur agreed.
There is debate over the exact date of this exodus: 716 CE (S. In his account of their religion he emphasized the features that accorded with Hinduism, for instance, reverence for the sun and the moon, fire and water, and the cow.Various Parsi scholars have attempted to identify this invasion with known external history, but with no clear conclusion (S. Because the route to Bansda was impassable during monsoons, Irān-šāh was eventually moved to Navsari at the behest of a legendary leader, Chāngā Āsā. The sea-borne trade between western India and the Persian Gulf (and to East Africa and China) dated back centuries (Kearney).The Parsi migrants were not therefore venturing into unknown territory, but to a region with which Iranians had long traded.It is plausible that there were several groups who migrated over the years.As noted below, there were a variety of traditions about the settlement in the early 17th century. There are a number of hints about early Parsi settlements in a range of sources, some Muslim, some notes on old manuscripts, and some early buildings. Some of the earliest are: the Kenheri cave inscriptions of 1009 CE; reports of the presence of Parsi traders in Cambay in the 11th century; the settlement in Navsari, which is said to date from 1142; and a copy of the (see CORPSE) was built near Broach in 1309 because the old one (undated) was dilapidated (Patel, p. Some grants of land were made to Parsis around Thana in the 11th century, and there is a communal memory and ritual recall of a Parsi massacre at Variav in the 12th century (though the legend takes various forms, see , tr., pp. With such fragmentary evidence it is difficult to plot a coherent chronological history.He settled in Patna in his later years and died there in 1617-18. Chāngā Āsā, credited with the bringing of the fire to Navsari, was a pioneer in another important development in Parsi history. Of the 26 provide information not only on Zoroastrian belief and practice, but also offer a glimpse into the conditions experienced by Iranian Zoroastrians.