The transfer of and exposure to bodily fluids, such as blood transfusions and other blood products, sharing injection needles, needle-stick injuries (when medical staff are inadvertently jabbed or pricked with needles during medical procedures), sharing tattoo needles, and childbirth are other avenues of transmission.These different means put certain groups, such as medical workers, and haemophiliacs and drug users, particularly at risk.
Other facilities strongly encourage that those previously infected return to ensure that the infection has been eliminated.
Novel strategies to foster re-testing have been the use of text messaging and email as reminders.
Some of these microbes are known to be sexually transmitted.
Many STIs are (more easily) transmitted through the mucous membranes of the penis, vulva, rectum, urinary tract and (less often—depending on type of infection) the mouth, throat, respiratory tract and eyes.
The amount of contact with infective sources which causes infection varies with each pathogen but in all cases a disease may result from even light contact from fluid carriers like venereal fluids onto a mucous membranes.
Healthcare professionals suggest safer sex, such as the use of condoms, as a reliable way of decreasing the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases during sexual activity, but safer sex cannot be considered to provide complete protection from an STI.
This can be avoided simply by not engaging in sexual contact when presenting open, bleeding wounds.
Other STIs, even viral infections, can be prevented with the use of latex, polyurethane or polyisoprene condoms as a barrier.
Twenty-seven different viruses have been identified in semen.
Information on whether or not transmission occurs or whether the viruses cause disease is uncertain.
The visible membrane covering the head of the penis is a mucous membrane, though it produces no mucus (similar to the lips of the mouth).